Blue Ribbon

This bibliography is a collection of references to the specifics of historic Old World weave structures before 1600. If a source doesn't give thread counts, I don't list it here. This work was initially circulated in pamphlet form in August 1995. It has been revised and is occasionally updated for publication here. Last revised on 29 November 2001. New entries are marked with a triple asterisk, ***. (I also have a draft supplemental bibliography of sources lacking in thread counts, but otherwise useful to the same study.)

This document is a work in progress. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranties. While every effort has been taken to ensure the accuracy of the information contained, the author assumes no responsibility for errors or omissions, or for damages resulting from the use of the information contained herein.

Permission is granted to make and distribute verbatim copies of this document for non-commercial private research purposes provided the copyright notice and this permission notice are preserved on all copies. The definitive version of this work resides at

Just What Exactly Is "Whyt Samyt" Anyway?

being a handweaver's bibliography of sources for technical information on divers weaves and setts of the Roman Empire, Middle Ages, and Renaissance

Annotations copyright © 1995, 1997-2001 Carolyn Priest-Dorman.

Books and Individual Articles

*** Arwidsson, Greta. Valsgärde 8. Die Gräberfunde von Valsgärde II. Uppsala: Almqvist & Wiksells Boktryckeri AB, 1954.

Textiles from Valsgärde grave 8 dating to the Vendel Period in Sweden. Includes a wabengewebe, a tapestry related to the Oseberg one, and a striped cloak.

Barber, Elisabeth J.W. Prehistoric Textiles: The Development of Cloth in the Neolithic and Bronze Ages with Special Reference to the Aegean. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1991.

Good general information for pre-Roman textile types, also some insight into various production processes.

Becker, John, and Wagner, Donald B. Pattern and Loom: A Practical Study of the Development of Weaving Techniques in China, Western Asia and Europe. Copenhagen: Rhodos International Publishers, 1987.

Covers, among others, the weaving of period samitum, taqueté, and other early compound weaves; lampas, double cloths, and damasks; and how to adapt the drawloom technique to standard looms. Although the section on Cloth of Aresta is believed by others to be based on an incorrect analysis of a single piece, this book is still a mind-blower for anyone interested in weaving complicated patterned textiles.

Bender Jørgensen, Lise. Forhistoriske Textiler i Skandinavien. Nordiske Fortidsminder Serie B, Bind 9. Copenhagen: Det Kongelige Nordiske Oldskriftselskab, 1986.

Comparative analysis of textiles in Scandinavia from the Early Bronze to the Viking period, by period and location. Some comparative material from northern and central Europe is included. An extensive English summary makes this quite useable.

-----. North European Textiles until AD 1000. Aarhus, Denmark: Aarhus University Press, 1991.

Extensive catalogue of textiles from North Europe dating from the Neolithic to the year 1000, excluding Scandinavia. The initial chapters are heavy going, so flip right to the catalogue if you just want to weave a re-creation textile.

*** -----. "The Textile Remains," pp. 165-168 in R.D.E. Welander, Colleen Batey, and T.G. Cowrie, "A Viking Burial from Kneep, Uig, Isle of Lewis," Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, vol. 117 (1987), pp. 149-174.

Textiles and an imprint from a 10th century Viking woman's burial in Scotland.

*** Brachwitz, Petra. Webdecken des 15. und 16. Jahrhunderts: Die Fertigung von Halbwollgeweben nördlich der Alpen. Kölner Beiträge zur Restaurierung und Koservierung von Kunst- und Kulturgut, Band 7. München: Anton Siegl GmbH, 1998.

Samitum cloths from Cologne, woven in wool on linen warps in the 15th and 16th centuries. Catalogue, charts, graphs, and photos of each piece.

Budny, Mildred, and Tweddle, Dominic. "The Early Medieval Textiles at Maaseik, Belgium." The Antiquaries Journal LXV (1985), pp. 353-389.

A really thorough look at two mostly Anglo-Saxon textile compositions (several pieces sewn together), comprising embroidery, tablet weaving, beading, pearling, and several silks.

*** Capitani d'Arzago, Alberto de. Antichi tessuti della Basilica Ambrosiana. Biblioteca de "l'Arte," Nuova Serie, Vol. I. Milano: L'Arte, 1941.

Relics of Saint Ambrosius. Lots of late Roman and early Christian silk and linen textiles, some with brocading of silk on linen. Some very nice plates.

*** Cardon, Dominique. La Draperie au Moyen Âge: Essor d'une Grande Industrie Européenne. Paris: CNRS Éditions, 1999.

Large, densely packed volume with details of medieval cloth production technology; some fabulous photos from off the beaten track include one of an extant reed! Illuminates the textile industry in, especially, southern France and the northwestern Mediterranean. Not a whole lot of specific cloth details, proportionally speaking, but who cares? Well worth getting anyway, even if for no other reason than for admiring the textile worker motifs depicted in a variety of medieval arts including sculpture, illumination, and stained glass.

Cardon, Dominique, et al. "Des vêtements pour un comte," pp. 155-189 in Le comte de l'An Mil, ed. É. Crubézy and Ch. Dieulafait. Revue Aquitania Supplément 8. Talence: Federation Aquitania, 1996.

Some unusual clothing textiles from the tomb of a count of Toulouse dating to around the year 1000. Interesting discussion of the change in loom technology that occurred around that time.

Carroll, Diane Lee. Looms and Textiles of the Copts. Memoirs of the California Academy of Sciences, 11. Seattle: California Academy of Sciences/University of Washington Press, 1988.

Details of many Coptic tapestry weaves including their linen background fabrics, and one silk "drawloom" textile. Her conclusions about loom types are not universally accepted, however.

Coatsworth, Elizabeth; Fitzgerald, Maria; Leahy, Kevin; and Owen-Crocker, Gail. "Anglo- Saxon Textiles from Cleatham, Humberside," Textile History 7:1 (Spring 1996), pp. 5-41.

Linen textiles found in graves dating from the fifth through seventh centuries.

Crowfoot, Elisabeth. "A Romano-Egyptian Dress of the First Century B.C.?" Textile History 20:2 (Fall 1980), pp. 123-128.

A linen "bag-tunic" discovered and probably woven in Egypt, although excavated in a context indicating Roman occupation.

-----. "The Textiles," pp. 98-106 in B. Green and A. Rogerson, The Anglo-Saxon Cemetery at Bergh-Apton, Norfolk. East Anglian Archaeology Report No. 7. Gressenhall: Norfolk Archaeological Unit, 1978.

Early Anglo-Saxon burial finds--two-, three-, and four-shed weaves. Overall a bit sketchy, but includes find locations.

-----. "Textiles," pp. 36-37 in M.O.H. Carver, "Three Saxo-Norman Tenements in Durham City." Medieval Archaeology 23 (1979), pp. 1-80.

Seven textiles from Periods 1 and 2 of the site (late 10th to sometime in the 12th century), of which six are three-shed twills. Some are garment-weight. An interesting color-and- weave pattern, possibly a plaid.

-----. "Textiles," pp. 15-16 in J.D. Hedges and D.G. Buckley, "Anglo-Saxon Burials and Later Features Excavated at Orsett, Essex, 1975." Medieval Archaeology 29 (1985), pp. 1-24.

Three late 7th or early 8th century Anglo-Saxon burial textiles, including a spin-patterned, possible color-and-weave check.

-----. "The Textiles." The Sutton Hoo Ship-Burial, Volume 3, Part I, ed. Angela Care Evans. London: The British Museum, 1983.

Good chapter on the Sutton Hoo textiles with some associated information on textiles from other English finds dating to the same period.

-----. "Textiles," pp. 467-88 in Martin Biddle, Object and Economy in Medieval Winchester. Winchester Studies 7.ii. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1990.

Information on textile remains dating to a variety of periods, ninth to fourteenth century, found at Winchester; includes silks, linens, and wools.

Crowfoot, Elisabeth; Pritchard, Frances; and Staniland, Kay. Textiles and Clothing c.1150-c.1450. Medieval Finds from Excavations in London, 4. London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office, 1992.

Catalogue entries for textiles both simple and complex, in wool, linen, silk, and mixed fibers. Really makes you want to weave your own garb!

Crowfoot, Grace. "Textiles of the Saxon Period in the Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology." Cambridge Antiquarian Society Proceedings 44 (1950), pp. 26-32.

A few "late pagan" period Saxon textiles.

-----. Various sections on textiles in Gerhard Bersu and David M. Wilson, Three Viking Graves in the Isle of Man: pp. 43-44 and 80-83. Medieval Archaeology Monograph Series 1. London: The Society for Medieval Archaeology, 1966.

The longer section includes a write-up on a pile cloak.

Crowfoot, Grace, and Griffiths, Joyce. "Coptic Textiles in Two-faced Weave with Pattern in Reverse." Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 25:1 (June 1939), pp. 40-47.

Two four-harness complementary-weft drafts, in a slightly unusual notation.

Cyrus-Zetterström, Ulla. "A Monochrome Patterned Silk Fabric among the Finds from Birka," pp. 45-48 in Estham and Nockert.

Draft and photo of a recreation of a Chinese Han dynasty silk found in an early tenth-century man's grave in Sweden.

*** De Jonghe, Daniël. "Technologische Beschouwingen," pp. 65-88 in Textiel van de vroege middeleeuwen tot het Concilie van Trente. Tongeren Basiliek van O.-L.-Vrouw Geboorte, I. Leuven: Uitgeverij Peeters, 1988.

An introductory section on weaves represented in the relic collection of the Basilica of Our Lady at Tongeren. De Jonghe also wrote the weaving entries in the ensuing catalogue. Meticulous analysis, clear drawings, some great close-up structural photos, and a glossary, but very little "eye candy."

Desrosiers, Sophie; Vial, Gabriel; and De Jonghe, Daniël. "Cloth of Aresta: A Preliminary Study of its Definition, Classification, and Method of Weaving," pp. 199-223 in Monnas and Granger-Taylor.

These medieval Spanish drawloom silks often had heraldic motifs and were popular in the thirteenth century. They are also less technically complicated than many other medieval silk weaves.

Eastwood, Gillian. "Textiles," pp. 285-326 in Donald S. Whitcomb and Janet H. Johnson, Quseir al-Qadim 1980 Preliminary Report. American Research Center in Egypt Reports, Vol. 7. Malibu: Undena Publications, 1982.

Complete technical details for a wide variety of linen and linen-blend textiles from the Roman and medieval Islamic occupations of this site near the Red Sea. Lots of color-and- weave effects.

*** Eißengarthen, Jutta. Mittelalterliche Textilien aus Kloster Adelhausen im Augustinermuseum Freiburg. Freiburg: Adelhausenstiftung Frieburg im Breisgau, 1985.

Details of the textiles underlying several German embroideries of the 14th through 16th centuries.

Endrei, Walter. "Über Blöckchendamaste," pp. 23-27 in Estham and Nockert.

Drafts for some late Roman block damask silks.

Engelstad, Helen. Dobbeltvev i Norge. Fortids Kunst i Norges Bygder, Serie II Publikasjon VI. Oslo: Gyldendal Norsk Forlag, 1958.

Survey of historic double weave textiles in Norway. Includes some medieval double weaves, although most are some centuries later. Good English summary. Catalogue includes decoupure and pattern repeat information.

*** Erikson, Marianne. Textiles in Egypt 200-1500 A.D. in Swedish Museum Collections. Göteborg: Röhsska Museet, 1997.

Fifty pieces, mostly Coptic tunics and tapestry but with some taqueté, imported Indian resist-dyed cottons, and one piece of tablet weaving.

Fanelli, Rosalia Bonito. Five Centuries of Italian Textiles: 1300-1800, A Selection from the Museo del Tessuto Prato. Prato: Cassa di Risparmi e Depositi di Prato, 1981.

Glorious plates with detailed catalogue entries, provenances, and correlations noted. Catalogue follows CIETA guidelines and is specific with respect to thread count of all weaves, including the elaborate velvets and brocades. A feast for the eyes!

Flury-Lemberg, Mechthild. Textile Conservation and Research: A Documentation of the Textile Department on the Occasion of the Twentieth Anniversary of the Abegg Foundation. Schriften der Abegg-Stiftung, Volume VII. Bern: Abegg-Stiftung, 1988.

Another book with glorious photos, worth a long look even if you aren't going to try to reproduce any of the weaves. Includes a 50-page technical catalogue of the textiles, most of which are period-- from Coptic and Byzantine to Elizabethan.

France-Lanord, Albert. "La fouille en laboratoire: Méthodes et résultats." Dossiers de l'Archéologie 32 (January-February 1979), pp. 66- 91.

Details of the burial textiles in the so-called Arégond grave, that of a seventh-century Merovingian royal woman. Includes evidence for silk, linen, hemp, wool, and cotton! Frustratingly vague on weave details in some cases.

Fuhrmann, Irmingard. "Der Gewebefund von Pilgramsdorf: Unter Berücksichtigung der Gewebe von Sacrau und Anduln." Praehistorische Zeitschrift 30-31, nos. 1-2 (1939-1940), pp. 308-329.

Roman Iron Age textiles from Pielgrzymowo, Poland.

Geijer, Agnes. Die Textilfunde aus den Gräbern. Birka: Untersuchungen und Studien, III. Uppsala: Almqvist & Wiksells, 1938.

Among many other things, has drawdowns and thread counts for a great variety of textiles found at Viking Age Birka, dating to the ninth and tenth centuries.

Granger-Taylor, Hero. "The Weft-patterned Silks and their Braid: The Remains of an Anglo-Saxon Dalmatic of c. 800," pp. 303-327 in Bonner et al.

Describes a type of early silk tabby weave with additional floating pattern wefts.

Guðjonsson, Elsa E. "Forn röggvarvefnaður," Árbók hins Izlenska Fornleifafélags (Reykjavík: Ísafoldarprentsmiðja H.F., 1962), pp. 12-71.

Considers a pre-1200 Icelandic shaggy cloak fragment, follows with a typology of pile weaves, discusses parallel finds in the same period, and includes plates of several medieval depictions of shaggy cloaks in statuary and illumination. Includes information on appearance and historic dimensions of Icelandic pile cloaks, taken from Grágás. Very good English summary. Still the seminal work on the subject, although the structural drawing is misleading.

Hägg, Inga. Die Textilfunde aus dem Hafen von Haithabu. Berichte über die Ausgrabungen in Haithabu, Bericht 20. Neumünster: Karl Waccholtz Verlag, 1984.

Textiles found in the tenth-century Hedeby harbor, re-used as caulking rags. Many tables, drawings, and photos.

-----. Die Textilfunde aus der Siedlung und aus den Gräbern von Haithabu: Beschreibung und Gliederung. Berichte über die Ausgrabungen in Haithabu, Bericht 29. Neumünster: Karl Wachholtz Verlag, 1991.

Burial and settlement textiles from Viking Age Hedeby. Even if you can't read German, there are many useful tables, drawings, and photos.

-----. "Die Tracht," Chapter 8 in Greta Arwidsson, ed., Birka II.2, Systematischen Analysen der Gräberfunde. Birka: Untersuchungen und Studien, Volume II, fascicule 2. Stockholm: Kungl. Vitterhets Historie och Antikvitets Akademien, 1986.

Another source for information on the textiles from Birka; this builds on and clarifies Geijer's work.

Hald, Margrethe. Ancient Danish Textiles from Bogs and Burials: A Comparative Study of Costume and Iron Age Textiles, translated by Jean Olsen. Publications of the National Museum, Archaeological-Historical Series, Vol. XXI. Copenhagen: National Museum of Denmark, 1980.

Catalogues a huge array of textiles, most fragmentary, from bogs, settlements, and burials; also includes a chapter on "Woven Fabrics and Their Construction."

Heckett, Elizabeth. "Some Hiberno-Norse Headcoverings from Fishamble Street and St. John's Lane, Dublin." Textile History 18:2 (Fall 1987), pp. 159-74.

Information on the textiles composing wool and silk caps from the tenth to twelfth centuries.

*** Hedges, John W. "Appendix 6: The Textiles and Textile Equipment," pp. 190-193 in "Excavations at 1 Westgate Street, Gloucester, 1975," by C.M. Heighway, A.P. Garrod, and A.G. Vince. Medieval Archaeology 23 (1979), pp. 159-213.

A few ninth-century wool twills.

Henshall, Audrey S. "Early Textiles found in Scotland," parts I and II.

Part I, "Locally Made," Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, Vol. LXXXVI (1951- 1952), pp. 1-29, includes Romano-British through seventeenth century items, especially a good explanation of the Falkirk tartan and some 17th century plaids.
Part II, "Medieval Imports," Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, Vol. LXXXVIII (1954- 56), pp. 22-39, includes textiles from Robert the Bruce's grave plus two 16th century episcopal graves.

-----. "Textiles on the back of a brooch from Blewburton Hill, Berks.," Appendix II (pages 68-72) of A.E.P. Collins and F.J. Collins, "Excavations on Blewburton Hill, 1953." The Berkshire Archaeological Journal 55 (1959), pp. 68-71.

Several layers of textile on the back of an early Anglo-Saxon woman's bronze brooch.

*** Herrmann, Hannelore, and Langenstein, York, eds. Textile Grabfunde aus der Sepultur des Bamberger Domkapitels. Bayerisches Landesamt für Denkmalpflege, Arbeitsheft 33. München: Bayerisches Landesamt für Denkmalpflege, 1987.

Collection of papers from a conference, plus a catalogue which contains mostly a large number of samitum and lampas textiles from the eleventh through fourteenth centuries. Many reconstructed pattern motifs.

Higgins, Clare. "Some New Thoughts on the Nature Goddess Silk," pp. 329-337 in Bonner et al.

Analysis of a late eighth- or early-ninth-century Byzantine silk found with the relics of St. Cuthbert.

Hoffmann, Marta. The Warp-Weighted Loom: Studies in the History and Technology of an Ancient Implement. Oslo: The Norwegian Research Council for Science and the Humanities, 1974 [Robin and Russ Handweavers reprint; original printing 1966, Studia Norvegica 16].

The best book available on the subject, with an excellent bibliography. However, recent experiments with the loom have shed much light on the subject and disproved a few of Hoffmann's theories. The NESAT proceedings are a good source for supplementary information.

Hundt, Hans-Jürgen. "Die Textilreste," pp. 149-163 in Peter Paulsen and Helga Schach-Dürges, Das alamannische Gräberfeld von Giengen an der Brenz. Forschungen und Berichte zur Vor- und Frühgeschichte in Baden- Württemberg, Band 10. Stuttgart: Verlag Müller & Gräff, 1978.

Alamannic graves examined, including an important warrior's grave. Excellent diagrams of several variations on rosette twill.

-----. Die Textil- und Schnurreste aus der Frühgeschichtlichen wurt Elisenhof. Studien zur Küstenarchäologie Schleswig-Holsteins, Serie A. Elisenhof: Die Ergebnisse der Ausgrabung der Frühgeschichtlichen Marschenseidlung beim Elisenhof in Eiderstedt 1957/58 und 1961/64, Band 4. Frankfurt am Main/Bern: Peter D. Lang, 1981.

Textiles from a proto-Viking Age town (6th to 8th centuries) in Schleswig, North Germany. Details a great variety of wool weaves, plus starting borders and selvedges. Lots and lots of weaving drafts, extremely clearly illustrated. Rare, but thrilling if you're a lozenge twill or "Dark Ages" freak.

-----. "Ein Textilfund aus Grab 8 von Dörverden, Kr. Verden (Aller), Niedersachsen." Studien zur Sachsenforschung 4 (1983), pp. 207-212.

Another Alamannic-period grave. Best explanation of rippenköper I've seen.

-----. "Textilereste aus den frühgeschichtlichen Kriegergrab von Sievern, Kr. Wesermünde, 1954." Studien zur Sachsenforschung 2 (1980), pp. 151-160.

Report on the textiles from an Alamannic warrior's chamber grave, including wools, linens, and an unusual honeycomb weave.

Ierusalimskaja, Anna A. Die Gräber der Moscevaja Balka: Frühmittelalterliche Funde an der Nordkaukasischen Seidenstrasse, trans. I.M. Smoljanski and Ursula Rosenschon. Muünchen: Editio Maris, 1996.

Eighth- and ninth-century grave finds from the northwestern tip of the Caucasus mountains (near the Sea of Azov). Includes huge numbers of samitum examples, both Byzantine and Central Asian. Some wool, linen, ramie, and cotton also, including a couple of small leno ("Karelian weave") pieces. Descriptions do not usually include in-depth discussion of weave techniques, although useful thread counts and measurements are included.

King, Donald, and King, Monique. "Silk Weaves of Lucca in 1377," pp. 67-76 in Estham and Nockert.

Excerpts from guild requirements, giving names, widths, and setts for various Italian silks.

Kühnel, Ernst, and Bellinger, Louisa. Catalogue of Dated Tiraz Fabrics: Umayyad, Abbasid, Fatimid. The Textile Museum. Washington, D.C.: National Publishing Company, 1952.

Although the focus is on the inscriptions and dating of these early Islamic textiles, there are plenty of technical details herein.

LaPorte, Jean-Pierre. "Tissus médiévaux de Chelles et de Faremoutiers," pp. 153-172 in Tissu et Vêtement.

Technical details of several Byzantine and Merovingian textiles.

-----. Le Trésor des Saints de Chelles. Chelles: Societé Archéologique et Historique, 1988.

The most thorough write-up on the Chelles textiles associated with the relics of Saints Bathilde and Bertille. Many are seventh-century Merovingian or Byzantine; some are later medieval.

LaPorte, Jean-Pierre, and Boyer, Raymond. Trésors de Chelles: Sépultures et Reliques de la Reine Bathilde et de l'Abbesse Bertille. Chelles: Societé Archéologique et Historique, 1991.

Technical details of several textiles, including many silks, associated with the relics of Saints Bathilde and Bertille.

MacGregor, Arthur. Anglo-Scandinavian Finds from Lloyds Bank, Pavement, and Other Sites. The Archaeology of York, volume 17, fascicule 3. York: The York Archaeological Trust and the Council for British Archaeology, 1982.

Has a useful section by John Hedges on finds of textiles from York dating to the ninth to eleventh centuries.

Marco, Ksynia, and Dobbie, Margaret. "The Conservation of an Eighth Century A.D. Sleeveless Coptic Tunic." Studies in Conservation 27 (1982), pp. 154-160.

Weave and sewing details for a linen tunic with wool tapestry bands.

Martiniani-Reber, Marielle. Textiles et Mode Sassanides: Les tissus orientaux conservés au département des Antiquités égyptiennes. Inventaire des collections publiques françaises, 39, Musée du Louvre. Paris: Éditions de la Réunion des musées nationaux, 1977.

Textiles and clothing fragments from Antinoë, roughly dating from the fourth to seventh centuries. Especial focus on the figured silks.

Mazzaoui, Maurenn Fennell. The Italian Cotton Industry in the Later Middle Ages 1100-1600. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1981.

Very useful, rare information on the use of cotton before the New World varieties were discovered. Gives some general information on widths and numbers of warp threads for certain types of weaves. Stronger on history than on technology, however.

Mitchell, D.M. "'By Your Leave my Masters': British Taste in Table Linen in the Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries." Textile History 20:1 (1989), pp. 49-77.

Some details of linen damask setts.

Monnas, Lisa, and Vial, Gabriel. "A Renaissance Silk Velvet with a Phoenix Design: Technical Notes," pp. 313-320 in Monnas and Granger-Taylor.

Very in-depth analysis of an Italian silk circa 1475, including drafts for three sets of warps and two figure harnesses.

Müller-Christensen, Sigrid. "Textilien in Schwaben" and "Textilien" [catalogue]. Suevia Sacra: Frühe Kunst in Schwaben, pp. 51-52 and 192-216. Augsburg: International Council of Museums, 1973.

Catalogue entries for several ecclesiastical textiles including samitum, lampas, and bandweaves. Some nice plates.

Müller-Christensen, Sigrid, et al. "Die Gräber im Königschor," pp. 923-1023 in Hans Erich Kubach and Walter Haas, eds., Der Dom zu Speyer, Vol. 2 (Textband). Münich: Deutscher Kunstverlag, 1972.

Get both volumes: one is text and the other black and white plates. Covers royal and episcopal graves in Speyer Cathedral dating from tenth to early thirteenth centuries, including some Holy Roman emperors and empresses. There are all sorts of delicious surprises in it! (My favorite: silk episcopal boots embroidered with gold-thread daisies.)

Munksgaard, Elisabeth. "The Embroideries from Bjerringhøj, Mammen," pp. 159-172 in Høgestøl et al. Universitetets Oldsaksamlings Skrifter Ny rekke Nr. 5. Oslo: 1984.

Tenth-century Danish: a more recent analysis of the Mammen burial textiles than Hald's.

Muthesius, Anna. "A Practical Approach to the History of Byzantine Silk Weaving," Jahrbuch der Osterreichischen Byzantinistik 34 (1984), pp. 235-254.

In-depth consideration of a small group of inscribed Imperial lion silks of tenth-eleventh century date.

-----. "Silks and Saints: The Rider and Peacock Silks from the Relics of St Cuthbert," pp. 343-366 in Bonner et al.

In-depth analysis of one Byzantine and one Islamic silk.

*** Nahlik, Adam. Tkaniny Welniane Importowane i Miejscowe Nowogrodu Wielkiego X-XV Wieku. Wroclaw, Warszawa, Krakow: Zaklad Narodowy Imienia Ossolinskich Wydawnictwo Polskiej Akademii Nauk, 1964.

Wool textiles from Novgorod, tenth to 15th centuries, with several b/w photos. Textiles divided into "classes" based on thread counts. Lots of tables, French summary and captions.

Nockert, Margareta. Bockstensmannen och hans Dräkt. Falkenberg: Falkensbergs Tryckeri, 1985.

Details of the complete costume of an early fourteenth-century Swedish man found buried in a bog. Lots of comparative materials; English summary.

-----. The Högom Find and Other Migration Period Textiles and Costumes in Scandinavia. Högom Part II. Archaeology and Environment 9. University of Umeå Department of Archaeology. Umeå, Sweden: 1991.

Includes a catalogue of "all Swedish textile finds from the Roman Iron Age and Migration Period [plus] [t]he Norwegian textile material relevant for comparison." Lots of neat tablet weaving information too. It's rare to find this sort of information in English.

-----. "A Scandinavian Haberget?," pp. 100-107 in Harte and Ponting.

Textiles from a woman's grave at Leksand, dated to about the 13th century. Includes a broken lozenge twill tentatively identified as "haberget."

*** -----. "Textilfynden," Tusen år på Kyrkudden: Leksands kyrka, Arkeologi och Byggnadshistoria, ed. Erik Hofrén and Birgitta Dandanell, pp. 143- 157. Dalarnas Fornminnes och Hembygdsförbunds Skrifter, 25. Leksand, Sweden: Leksands Församling, 1982.

In-depth consideration of the textiles found in graves at Leksand, Sweden, dating to about the 13th century. Includes a rare late broken lozenge twill, tabbies, repps, and 2/1 and 2/2 twills. Even in Swedish, the table of technical information makes sense.

Østergärd, Else. "Textilfragmenterne fra Mammengraven," pp. 123-38 in Iversen, Näsman, and Vellev.

Excellent photographs and tables, English captions, and a little intuition will get you through this Danish-language chapter. The best single source for the Mammen textiles.

Pritchard, Frances A. "Late Saxon Textiles from the City of London." Medieval Archaeology 28 (1984), pp. 46-76.

Setts and weaves for several different types of textiles.

Robinson, Gertrude; Urquhart, H.; and Hindson, Alice. "Seal Bags in the Treasury of the Cathedral Church of Canterbury." Archaeologia LXXXIV (1935), pp. 163-211.

Mostly medieval, mostly silks, several imported from the Far East.

Rogers, Clive. Early Islamic Textiles. Brighton, England: Rogers & Podmore, 1983.

Photos, details of sett and weave (mostly tabbies) of several textiles. Some fun stuff, including checks and ikat.

Ryder, M.L., and Gabra-Sanders, Thea. "Textiles from Fast Castle, Berwickshire, Scotland." Textile History 23:1 (Spring 1992), pp. 5-22.

Several workaday wool tabbies, a silk braid, and a piece of velvet from the late fifteenth century.

Schlabow, Karl. Der Thorsberger Prachtmantel: Schlüssel zum altgermanischen Webstuhl Veröffentlichungen des Fördervereins Textilmuseum Neumünster e. V., Heft 5. Neumünster: Karl Wachholtz Verlag, 1965.

Very detailed account of the reproduction of a Prachtmantel, or elaborate man's cloak, from the Roman Iron Age in Denmark. Great structural line drawings. Unfortunately, subsequent analysis has proved that the tablet woven borders were not woven onto the Prachtmantel, rendering his reconstruction incorrect.

-----. Textilfunde der Eisenzeit in Norddeutschland. Neumünster: Karl Wachholtz Verlag, 1976.

A goldmine of information on Germanic Iron Age textiles. Wonderful details about setts, weaves, and the clothing made from the texiles. Lots of very clear drawings.

*** -----. "Vor- und Frühgeschichtliche Textilfunde aus den Nördlichen Niederlanden." Palaeohistoria, Vol. 16 (1974), pp. 169-221.

Second- to ninth-century textile finds from Frisia: a catalogue, photos, and structural drawings including a page of sewing techniques.

Schmedding, Brigitta. Mittelalterliche Textilien in Kirchen und Klöstern der Schweiz. Bern: Schriftern der Abegg-Stiftung, 1978.

Catalogue of a huge variety of medieval textiles from churches and religious houses in Switzerland; includes setts and weave information for each.

*** Start, Laura E. "Textiles," pp. 204-224 in Lagore Crannog: An Irish Royal Residence of the 7th to 10th Centuries A.D., by Hugh Hencken. Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy, vol. 53, Section C., No. 1 (1951).

A number of tabby fragments and one 2/2 twill piece. These rare survivals are analyzed for such elements as thread count, thread size, and basic thread quality, but spin directions are missing and many of the author's determinations of warp vs. weft systems seem counter-intuitive. Unfortunately, the pieces have since gone missing from their museum home.

*** Stauffer, Annemarie. Die Mittelalterlichen Textilien von St. Servatius in Maastricht. Schriften der Abegg-Stiftung Riggisberg, Band VIII. Riggisberg: Abegg- Stiftung Riggisberg, 1991.

Textile relics from a major medieval collection, including a wide array of figured silks representing several major production centers throughout Eurasia. Also includes plainer silks as well as some linens, plus two figured linens.

Tidow, Klaus. "Die Gewebefunde aus dem Gräberfeld von Thumby-Bienebek," pp. 60-62 in Michael Müller-Wille, ed., Das wikingerzeitliche Gräberfeld von Thumby-Biuenebek (Kr. Rendsburg-Eckernförde), Teil 1. Neumünster: Karl Wachholtz Verlag, 1976.

A number of tabby linen textiles from a tenth-century Viking cemetery in Schleswig-Holstein. Tidow includes the diameters of the yarns in his analyses, rare and welcome information.

Trilling, James. The Roman Heritage: Textiles from Egypt and the Eastern Mediterranean 300 to 600 A.D. Textile Museum Journal 21. Washington: The Textile Museum, 1982.

A short section on early eastern Mediterranean "drawloom" textiles, possibly of use to advanced weavers.

*** Ullemeyer, Rudolf, and Tidow, Klaus. "Textil- und Lederfunde der Grabung Feddersen Wierde," pp. 77-152 in Einzeluntersuchungen zur Feddersen Wierde: Wagen, Textil- und Lederfunde, Bienenkorb, Schlackenanalysen, by Hajo Hayen, et al. Feddersen Wierde, Band III. Wiesbaden: Franz Steiner Verlag GMBH, 1981.

A late Roman period settlement in north Germany with a lot of interesting textiles. Includes a great many very clear diagrams, plus photos of many textiles and schematics for three checked textiles. Also includes yarn sizes in the catalogue information; hurrah!

Van Es, W.A., and Ypey, J. "Das grab der 'Prinzessin' von Zweeloo und seine Bedeutung im Rahmen des Gräberfeldes," pp. 97-126 in Hans-Jürgen Häßler, ed., Studien zur Sachsenforschung. Hildesheim: August Lax Verlagsbuchhandlung, 1977.

Textiles from a Frisian woman's burial, circa fifth century.

Vogelsang-Eastwood, Gillian M. "Two Children's Galabiyehs from Quseir al-Qadim, Egypt." Textile History 18:2 (Fall 1987), pp. 133-42.

Details of two twelfth- to fourteenth-century children's tunics, one of them cotton.

Walton, Penelope. "Dyes and wools in textiles from Mammen (Bjerringhøj), Denmark," pp. 139-43 in Iversen, Näsman, and Vellev.

A technical report on results of several tested textile samples from Mammen; includes fleece types, fiber sizes, and some good in-depth information on red plant dyes.

-----. Textile Production at 16-22 Coppergate. The Archaeology of York, Volume 17, Fascicule 11. York: York Archaeological Trust and the Council for British Archaeology, 1997.

A few textiles to add to the large catalogue in her 1989 book (see below). The rest of the book is even more riveting, the first book-length treatment of the history of textile production as it shifted from warp-weighted to horizontal loom technologies. Lots of useful information on tools and methods.

-----. "Textiles and Caulking Cords." Excavations in High Street and Blackfriargate, Peter Armstrong and Brian Ayers, pp. 227-232. East Riding Archaeologist, vol. 8 (1987). Hull Old Town Report Series, no. 5.

A few thirteenth- and 14th century textiles: silk tabby and wool 2/1 twill.

-----. Textiles, Cordage and Raw Fibre from 16-22 Coppergate. The Archaeology of York, Volume 17, Fascicule 5. York: York Archaeological Trust and the Council for British Archaeology, 1989.

Chapters on weave structures plus a large catalogue of everyday textile remnants from York, England, during the Anglo-Scandinavian period (8th-11th centuries). Great for Danelaw Vikings!

Wild, John Peter. "The Roman Horizontal Loom." American Journal of Archaeology 91:3 (July 1987), pp. 459-471.

Interesting discussion of some early silk two-block damask "drawloom" textiles dating to the late Roman empire.

*** ----. "Roman Textiles from Vindolanda, Hexham, England." Textile Museum Journal, vol. 18 (1979), pp. 19-24.

A few thread counts and a lot of related information on such issues as spinning direction and weave structure.

*** ----. "Some Early Silk Finds in Northwest Europe." Textile Museum Journal, vol. 23 (1984), pp. 17-23.

Silks before 400 CE north of the Alps, from the Hallstatt Celts to the Romans. Related information on a late Roman silk loom.

----. Textile Manufacture in the Northern Roman Provinces. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1970.

An easy read, as these books go. Handy catalogue of textiles from the northern reaches of the Roman Empire.

----. "The Textile Term 'Scutulatus'." The Classical Quarterly, New Series, Volume XIV (1964), pp. 263-266.

Gives a diagram and the sett of the "Falkirk tartan," for all you early British Celt types, and a drawdown of a late Roman silk damask.

-----. The Textiles from Vindolanda 1973-1975. Vindolanda III: The Textiles. Hexham: The Vindolanda Trust, 1977.

A large number of wools, mostly indigenous broken lozenge twills, from Vindolanda, a Roman garrison in the north of England. Most are dated circa 90-105 C.E.

Wolff, Philippe. "Three Samples of English Fifteenth-Century Cloth," pp. 120-125 in Harte and Ponting.

Translation of a French bill of sale dated 17 April 1458 with three samples of English broadcloth attached. The samples are briefly analyzed.

*** Zarina, Anna. Libiesu Apgerbs Latvijas PSR Zinatnu Akademija Vestures Instituts. Riga: "Zinatne," 1988.

Informative book on Livonian (Latvian) costume and textiles from the 10th through 13th centuries; includes several weave structures, sewing stitches, and lots of b/w photos of extant textiles including many with spiral bronze wire ornamentation. Russian and German summaries.

*** -----. Seno Latgalu Apgerbs 7.-13. gs. Riga: Izdevnieciba "Zinatne," 1968.

As above, but with an extensive catalogue in table format. Russian and German summaries.

Collections of Articles (Festschrifts, Proceedings, etc.)

Many of these collections contain very rich sources of information on textile history. The articles mentioned here contain specific weave and sett information, but often the entire collection, although perhaps less technical, is nevertheless useful. The NESAT proceedings are especially rich in that regard; almost every article in every NESAT volume has some weave specifics in it. They are listed by volume only for reasons of brevity.

Bender Jørgensen, Lise; Magnus, Bente; and Munksgaard, Elisabeth, eds. Archaeological Textiles: Report from the 2nd NESAT Symposium 1.-4.V.1984. Arkaeologiske Skrifter 2. Købnhavn: Arkaeologisk Institut, 1988.

Contains several short articles, some in German.

Bender Jørgensen, Lise, and Munksgaard, Elisabeth, eds. Archaeological Textiles in Northern Europe: Report from the 4th NESAT Symposium 1.-5. May 1990 in Copenhagen. Tidens Tand 5. Copenhagen: Det Kongelige Danske Kunstakademi, 1992.

Contains several short articles, some in German.

Bender Jørgensen, Lise, and Rinaldo, Christina, eds. Textiles in European Archaeology: Report from the 6th NESAT Symposium, 7-11th May 1996 in Borås. GOTARC Series A, Vol. 1. Göteborg: Göteborg University Department of Archaeology, 1998.

Contains several short articles, some in German.

Bender Jørgensen, Lise, and Tidow, Karl, eds. Textilsymposium Neumünster: Archäologische Textilfunde 6.5-8.5.1981. [NESAT 1] Neumünster: Textilsymposium Neumünster, 1982.

Contains several short articles, some in German.

Bonner, Gerald, et al. St. Cuthbert, His Cult and His Community to AD 1200. Woodbridge, Suffolk/Wolfeboro, New Hampshire: The Boydell Press, 1989.

Contains Granger-Taylor, Higgins, and Muthesius, above.

Estham, Inger, and Nockert, Margareta, eds. Opera Textilia Variorum Temporum to Honor Agnes Geijer on Her Ninetieth Birthday 26 October 1988. The Museum of National Antiquities, Stockholm, Studies No. 8. Stockholm: Statens Historiska Museum, 1988.

Contains Cyrus-Zetterström and King and King, above.

Fleury-Lemberg, Mechthild, and Stolleis, Karen, eds. Documenta Textilia: Festschrift für Sigrid Müller-Christensen. Munich: Deutscher Kunstverlag, 1981.

Contains several articles, most in German.

Gervers, Veronika. Studies in Textile History: In Memory of Harold B. Burnham. Toronto: Royal Ontario Museum, 1977.

Contains several articles.

Harte, N.B., and Ponting, K.G. Cloth and Clothing in Medieval Europe: Essays in Memory of Professor E.M. Carus-Wilson. Pasold Studies in Textile History 2. London: Heinemann Educational Books/The Pasold Research Fund Ltd., 1983.

Contains Nockert and Wolff, above.

Høgestøl, Mari, et al. Festskrift til Thorleif Sjøvold På 70-årsdagen. Universitetets Oldsaksamlings Skrifter Ny rekke Nr. 5. Oslo: 1984.

Contains Munksgaard, above.

Iversen, Mette; Näsman, Ulf; and Vellev, Jens, eds. Mammen: Grav, kunst og samfund i vikingetid. Viborg Stiftsmuseums raekke bind 1. Jysk Arkaeologisk Selskabs Skrifter 28. Viborg, 1991.

Includes Østergärd and Walton, above.

Jaacks, Gisela, and Tidow, Klaus. Archäologische Texilfunde--Archaeological Textiles: Textilsymposium Neumünster 4.-7.5. 1993. NESAT V. Neumünster: Textilmuseum Neumünster, 1994.

Contains several short articles, some in German.

*** Middeleeuws Textiel, in het Bijzonder in het Euregiogebied Maas-Rijn [Medieval Textiles, Particularly in the Meuse-Rhine Area], Proceedings of the Second Congress, Alden Biesen, 21.5 - 24.5 - 1991. Sint-Truiden, Belgium: Provinciaal Museum voor Religieuze Kunst, 1991.

Contains several short articles in Dutch, German, French, and English. Mostly about textiles in relic collections in northwest Europe.

*** Middeleeuws Textiel, in het Bijzonder in het Euregiogebied Maas-Rijn [Medieval Textiles, Particularly in the Meuse-Rhine Area], Proceedings of the [First] Congress, Alden Biesen, 13.02-16.02.1989 . Sint-Truiden, Belgium: Provinciaal Museum voor Religieuze Kunst, 1989.

Contains several short articles in Dutch, German, French, and English. Mostly about textiles in relic collections in northwest Europe.

Monnas, Lisa, and Granger-Taylor, Hero, eds. Ancient and Medieval Textiles: Studies in Honour of Donald King. Textile History 20:2 (Fall 1989). London: Pasold Research Fund, 1989.

Contains Endrei and Monnas and Vial, above.

Stettler, Michael, and Lemberg, Mechthild, eds. Artes Minores: Dank an Werner Abegg. Bern: Verlag Stämpfli and Cie AG, 1973.

Contains articles on figured silk weaves by Lemberg, Müller-Christensen, and Schmedding.

Tissu et Vêtement 5000 Ans de Savoir-Faire. Guiry-en-Vexin, France: Musée Archéologique Départemental du Val-d'Oise, 1987.

Contains LaPorte, above.

*** Varoli-Piazza, Rosalia, ed. Interdisciplinary Approach about Studies and Conservation of Medieval Textiles [Approccio Interdisciplinare allo Studio e alla Conservazionen dei Manufatti Tessili d'Età Medievale]. Convegno-Interim Meeting ICOM-CC, Palermo, 22-24 Ottobre 1998. Rome: Il Mondo 3 Eizioni, 1998.

Preprints including a great deal of previously unpublished information on textiles and clothing from a wide variety of periods. Several photographs, a few exceptional plates.

Walton, Penelope, and Wild, John P., eds. Textiles in Northern Archaeology: NESAT III Textile Symposium in York 6-9 May 1987. London: Archetype Publications, 1990.

Contains several short articles, some in German.

Useful Periodicals

This page was created on 3 February 1997 and last updated on 29 November 2001.

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