Rob Hill <email@example.com> wrote: > If we use graphical interfaces, whether Daniel's UML diagrams or a gui > desktop, we have to attempt to contstruct the graphical interface in > our minds, attempt to input our needs into it, and then figure out the > visual rules for manipulating it. This all involves wasted brain > processing, as compared to a linear text interface. > > Put another way, speech synthesis is basically a one-dimensional > modality, as are text-based modalities, whereas GUI tools are > two-dimensional modalities which do not fit well with speech. What a GUI screen reader provides is essentially a description of a visual interface, not a parallel and equivalent spoken (or braille) interface. T.V. Raman's papers on Emacspeak make the point very powerfully. Nowadays, of course, GUI screen readers obtain their information from accessibility APIs rather than from off-screen models, but this doesn't fundamentally change their role. In the case of the UML diagrams, the question to ask is not how to access the diagrams, but how to access the underlying content that they represent. The corresponding question is what textual format to use to write and manipulate this information, then, if possible, convert it into a diagram for presentation. Of course, it might happen that the diagrams are completely inessential to the concepts being taught and that the same ideas could be conveyed differently, in which case I would explore the other options and touch lightly on the diagrams to make sure they are understood for purposes of having a shared vocabulary with those who use them in software development. This is not my area at all, so I'm not familiar with the details of UML. As a final comment, I know Daniel is studying at Monash University, where there is an active research project to make directed and undirected graphs accessible, based on XML representations. I'm sure those involved in the research would be able to contribute to the discussion. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- To unsubscribe from the emacspeak list or change your address on the emacspeak list send mail to "firstname.lastname@example.org" with a subject of "unsubscribe" or "help".
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